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SELECT t.* FROM tests t WHERE = '1995' LIMIT 11
PSYCH 012 Human Growth and Development -Chapter 6 Practice Test
Q1/75: During the first of Freud's psychosexual stages of development, the child derives satisfaction from stimulation of which body part?
A. The mouth
B. The eyes
C. The genitals
D. The ears
Q2/75: Which term would Freud use when referring to the interdependence between mother and child?
A. Dual
B. One-way
C. Monotonous
D. Symbiotic
Q3/75: _________ conducted ingenious research which demonstrated that infant monkeys become attached to a terrycloth-covered mother and would cling to it rather than a wire mother that provided them with food.
A. Piaget
B. Harlow
C. Erikson
D. Freud
Q4/75: C.J. gains comfort through eating and drinking. She also cries to gain attention from her parents or to express discomfort. Freud would say that C.J. is in which stage of development?
A. Oral
B. Symbiotic
C. Dependent
D. Anal
Q5/75: What is the crisis of Erikson's first stage of psychosocial development?
A. Independence versus reliance
B. Trust versus mistrust
C. Interdependence versus symbiosis
D. Oral versus anal
Q6/75: Bart depends on his mother for everything he needs. When he cries, she responds with food or a clean diaper or a cuddle. Erikson would say that Bart's mother is helping him resolve the conflict known as
A. trust versus mistrust.
B. fear versus comfort.
C. the dependent stage.
D. the oral stage.
Q7/75: In the Harlow monkey studies, with which "mother" did the infant monkeys spend the most time?
A. The mother with a bottle and covered in terrycloth
B. The mother with the bottle
C. The mother covered in terrycloth
D. The mother without a bottle or terrycloth
Q8/75: Which of the following suggests that humans need and seek to form relationships early in life as a matter of genetics?
A. Psychosocial theory
B. Symbiosis theory
C. Psychosexual theory
D. Attachment theory
Q9/75: According to Bowlby's theory of attachment, which of the following will a child have developed by age years?
A. An external model that includes self, mother, and relationships in general
B. An internal model that includes self, and mother, but excludes a model of the father
C. An internal model that includes self, mother, and relationships in general
D. An internal model that includes only self and the primary caregiver
Q10/75: _________ is most associated with the view that infants are biologically predisposed to form emotional bonds with caregivers and that the characteristics of those bonds shape later social and personality development.
A. Freud
B. Erikson
C. Bowlby
D. Harlow
Q11/75: According to your text, which statement about adopted children is true?
A. Only 10% of adoptive children who come from abusive backgrounds ever actually have problems later on.
B. Adopted children have fewer adjustment problems once they are old enough to understand that their adoption means that they were "chosen."
C. Children who are adopted by the age of 6 months, with no history of institutionalization or abuse, are generally indistinguishable from nonadopted children.
D. Children who are adopted by age 10 are indistinguishable from nonadopted children, provided that they are adopted into loving homes.
Q12/75: Chad cries and his mother responds immediately. When he coos at his mother, she smiles and cuddles him. Developmentalists would say that this is an example of which of the following?
A. Maternity
B. Duplicity
C. Multiplicity
D. Synchrony
Q13/75: Which of the following statements about attachment is true?
A. The development of synchrony is less important than contact immediately after birth.
B. Fathers appear to be incapable of many of the same attachment behaviors as mothers.
C. Attachment to fathers is not as strong because mothers have a biological advantage.
D. Attachment is enhanced through a consistent pattern of attachment behaviors.
Q14/75: Which of the following statements about attachment is true?
A. Babies tend to laugh and wriggle around more with their mothers, but their behavior with their fathers is more subdued.
B. Fathers' behavior with infants is different from the behavior of mothers even immediately after birth.
C. By age 6 months, infants display distinctive patterns of responding to mother-father differences.
D. Contact immediately after birth is the most significant factor in attachment.
Q15/75: When a child is in phase of Bowlby's attachment sequence, which of the following behaviors would they most likely exhibit?
A. The child will begin to imagine the outcomes of her behavior before exhibiting the behavior.
B. The child will not distinguish between familiars and others in terms of smiling or beckoning behavior.
C. The child will be less likely to beckon strangers.
D. The child will seek out a primary caregiver as a "safe base."
Q16/75: Freddie is two months old. He smiles and coos at almost everyone he meets. Bowlby would say that Freddie is in which phase of attachment?
A. Focus on one or more figures
B. Internal model
C. Nonfocused orienting and signaling
D. Secure base behavior
Q17/75: Yong Park is nine months old. Lately when his mother tries to leave him in the church nursery, he cries and clings to his mother. His seems especially anxious if there is a new worker in the nursery. Considering his age, Yong Park is probably experiencing which of the following?
A. Separation anxiety
B. Attachment disorder
C. Bonding anxiety
D. Social referencing
Q18/75: Which of the following is a term applied to an infant's cry and protest at being left with someone other than their primary caregivers?
A. Separation anxiety
B. Bonding anxiety
C. Stranger anxiety
D. Social referencing
Q19/75: Some infants between and months experience a fear of people they do not know. Which of the following terms best identifies this fearful phase that seems to disappear as quickly as it came?
A. Social referencing
B. Stranger anxiety
C. Affect dysregulation
D. Separation anxiety
Q20/75: Callie, age months, went to the circus with her mother. When a clown came bouncing up to Callie's stroller, Callie was anxious and looked at her mother. When Callie's mother began to laugh at the clown, Callie joined in the laughter. Callie's behavior is called
A. bonding dependence.
B. affective regulation.
C. stranger anxiety.
D. social referencing.
Q21/75: Which of the following best exemplifies social referencing?
A. Tom's mother shows Tom pictures of different emotional expressions so that he can learn to imitate them.
B. Tom's father scolds Tom for being angry at his sister.
C. Tom's father uses a light mood and a smile to transition Tom from an angry state to a calmer one.
D. Tom's mother takes him away from his friends when he becomes angry at one of them for taking his toy.
Q22/75: Which of the following terms is used to describe children who readily separate from their caregivers and seem to enjoy exploring their surroundings?
A. Affectively attached
B. Irregularly attached
C. Securely attached
D. Insecurely attached
Q23/75: A child shows no interest in contact with her mother following a separation. This child does not specifically resist the mothers' efforts, but she will not seek much contact. She shows no preference for her mother over a stranger. Which of the following best describes this child?
A. Insecure/disorganized
B. Securely attached
C. Insecure/avoidant
D. Secure/resistant
Q24/75: Which of the following is a recognized category of attachment?
A. Unstructured
B. Formalized
C. Insecure/ambivalent
D. Chaotic
Q25/75: What is the term associated with expressions of discomfort, such as crying, when removed from an attachment figure?
A. Stranger anxiety
B. Insecure attachment
C. Separation anxiety
D. Avoidant attachment
Q26/75: When Mason cries, his mother responds by picking him up. When he coos, his mother talks to him. She smiles when he smiles. These are examples of which of the following?
A. Contingent responsiveness
B. Maternal behavior shaping
C. Reinforcement schedules
D. Classical conditioning
Q27/75: Julie's mother is extremely busy with her job, which she does at home. Some days Julie's mom is responsive and attentive, other days she is so overwhelmed by work that she is emotionally unavailable. Which of the following attachment styles is Julie likely to develop?
A. Insecure/Ambivalent
B. Insecure/Disorganized
C. Insecure/Detached
D. Secure/Ambivalent
Q28/75: According to your textbook, which of the following is a predictor of attachment quality?
A. Ethnicity
B. Childs gender
C. Number of other children
D. Marital status
Q29/75: If a mother is chronically and severely depressed, which of the following would you likely see in her child?
A. Decreased likelihood of mental illness in the future
B. Secure attachment
C. Over feeding
D. Synchrony
Q30/75: According to your textbook, which of the following is LEAST likely to have an adverse effect on a child's social and psychological wellness?
A. Living in a single parent household
B. Neglect by the parents
C. Marital conflict
D. Depression in the primary caregiver
Q31/75: Which of the following statements is true about attachment?
A. Securely attached infants have no greater social skills once they reach adolescence than insecurely attached infants.
B. Insecure avoidant infants are less likely as adolescents to act out sexually.
C. Attachment relationships are more critical to adult intimate relationships than other types of relationships.
D. Quality of attachment in infancy predicted sexual dysfunction in adults better than a sexual abuse history did.
Q32/75: Which of the following countries has the greatest percentage of securely attached children?
A. Germany
B. Japan
C. United States
D. Great Britain
Q33/75: What did researchers find in cross-cultural studies of attachment?
A. Secure attachment is the most common pattern in the eight countries studied.
B. Avoidant children were more common in Israel and Japan.
C. Insecure attachment was more common in western cultures.
D. European countries value independence, fostering insecure attachment.
Q34/75: What is unique about the Efe culture in regard to child rearing?
A. Children typically have only one primary caregiver.
B. Children are raised by their fathers, not their mothers.
C. Children are raised by the entire community.
D. Children are left to fend for themselves as soon as they are able to walk.
Q35/75: The emotional and behavioral predispositions present at birth are thought to be the foundation of personality. These predispositions are collectively referred to as
A. temperament.
B. motivations.
C. moods.
D. foundations.
Q36/75: Roberto is months old. He smiles a lot, is generally cheerful and shows little anxiety around strangers. Which type of temperament does Roberto have?
A. Difficult
B. Slow-to-warm-up
C. Easy
D. Approachful
Q37/75: Your neighbor Sarah told you that her two children were obviously very different and it was noticeable right from birth. According to Sarah, her son was fussy and rarely slept through the night, while her daughter was calm and adapted very easily to any situation. Sarah is describing which aspect of her children's differing personalities?
A. Patterns of sociability
B. Attachment pattern
C. Mood
D. Temperament
Q38/75: Which of the following terms is used to describe the temperament of children who are less regular with their body functions and slower to develop stable eating and sleeping patterns?
A. Secure
B. Difficult
C. Slow to warm
D. Easy
Q39/75: Which of the following is the best definition of temperament?
A. The degree to which a child will allow himself to be influenced by others.
B. One of three personality patterns displayed by children.
C. Inborn behavioral and emotional predispositions that form the basis of personality.
D. The typical pattern of responses that a child shows when angry or frustrated.
Q40/75: Which of the following are described in terms of activity level, distractibility, and persistence?
A. Types of infant personalities
B. Characteristics of self-concept
C. Personality dimensions
D. Dimensions of temperament
Q41/75: Which of the following is one of the dimensions proposed by researchers who study temperament?
A. Personality
B. Perceptual skills
C. Intelligence
D. Activity level
Q42/75: Approach/positive emotionality is one aspect of which perspective of temperament?
A. Categorical
B. Trait
C. Classic
D. Response
Q43/75: According to trait theory, what is the opposite of approach/positive emotionality (or sociability?
A. Irregularity
B. Irrationality
C. Introspection
D. Inhibition
Q44/75: According to the trait perspective of temperament, which of the following refers to an infant's relative tendency to move often and vigorously or remain passive?
A. Motor sociability
B. Activity level
C. Effortful control
D. Hyperactivity
Q45/75: Which of the following is true regarding the long-term stability of temperament?
A. The research data varies greatly so we can't draw any reliable conclusions on the longevity of temperament.
B. Difficult children tend to demonstrate the greatest level of instability in temperament.
C. Temperament remains stable through the age of 2 years, but then it becomes unpredictable.
D. Most studies have found that the basic temperament of a child stays relatively stable at least through age 12.
Q46/75: Which two neurotransmitters regulate the brain's response to new information and unusual situations?
A. Dopamine; serotonin
B. Adrenaline; dopamine
C. Adrenaline; noradrenaline
D. Dopamine; noradrenaline
Q47/75: Which of the following is associated with shyness?
A. Temporal lobe deficiency
B. Frontal lobe asymmetry
C. Cortical stimulation
D. Occipital lobe favoring
Q48/75: ________ is the process of selecting experiences based on temperament.
A. Hypothetical placement
B. Self-regulation
C. Self-fulfilling prophecy
D. Niche-picking
Q49/75: Research correlates neurological differences with differences in temperament. What is a basic argument against the conclusions drawn from this data?
A. The relationship between brain structure and shyness is illusory.
B. environmental influences have a greater influence on behavior than do differences in brain structure.
C. Environmental influences can alter brain structure just as brain structure can alter behavior.
D. Since it is correlational data, no conclusions can be drawn.
Q50/75: Which of the following best summarizes the findings of the research conducted by Hou, Chen, & Chen ( on parental influences of temperament?
A. Parental behavior positively impacted temperamental changes.
B. Parental behavior at age 4 predicted behavioral inhibition at age 7.
C. Parental behavior had little influence on changes in temperament.
D. Parental behavior at age 1 predicted temperament at age 7.
Q51/75: What is another term for subjective self?
A. Rational self
B. Metacognitive self
C. Objective self
D. Existential self
Q52/75: How does a child develop a subjective self?
A. By recognizing himself in the mirror
B. By recognizing her personal characteristics
C. By understanding her ability to have an effect on her environment
D. Through developing a personality
Q53/75: From Research Report on page : Which of the following statements about gender and temperament is true?
A. Temperament differences between boys and girls are smaller than what is perceived by parents and other adults.
B. Girls are more emotionally intense that boys.
C. Boys tend to show more fear responses than girls do.
D. Boys are generally more sociable than girls.
Q54/75: Taniya and Daniel are the parents of a well-behaved, predictable, and easy-going daughter. Their neighbors Doug and Diane have a daughter who they consider to be a tomboy because she likes to play ball and rough-and-tumble activities in the yard. This is an example of which of the following?
A. Temperamental gender typing
B. Gender differences
C. Temperamental stereotyping
D. Gender dysfunction
Q55/75: Which of the following is another term for the objective self?
A. Subjective self
B. Regulated self
C. Irrational self
D. Categorical self
Q56/75: Which of the following best describes the toddler's understanding that he or she is defined by membership in various categories, such as gender or personality characteristics?
A. Objective self
B. Superficial self
C. Subjective self
D. Inhibited self
Q57/75: Grasping the objective self requires which of the following?
A. Self-subjection
B. The existential self
C. Self-recognition
D. Self-attachment
Q58/75: Megan is a toddler who participated in an experiment. Her mother placed a dot of rouge on her nose and sat her in front of a mirror to see if she would reach for the mirror or her own nose in order to touch the red spot. If Megan reaches for her own nose, she is demonstrating
A. self-envy.
B. self-examination.
C. self-exploration.
D. self-awareness.
Q59/75: At what age will a toddler show a sharp increase in self-awareness?
A. 13 - 17 months
B. 9 - 12 months
C. 21 - 24 months
D. 18 - 20 months
Q60/75: Research suggests that infants can identify changes in the emotions expressed in others' faces by what age?
A. 4 months
B. 2-3 months
C. 6-9 months
D. 5 months
Q61/75: When an infant demonstrates an understanding of the emotions of others and how those emotions affect behavior, and also understands his or her own emotions and their expression, they are demonstrating their
A. conscious self.
B. social self.
C. emotional self.
D. personal self.
Q62/75: At what age do self-conscious emotions typically arise?
A. 30 months
B. 36 months
C. 18 months
D. 34 months
Q63/75: Which of the following is NOT a self-conscious emotion?
A. Pride
B. Happiness
C. Embarrassment
D. Shame
Q64/75: Which of the following is an example of family day care, according to your text's definition?
A. Zack stays with his sister and a sitter in their own home while their parents work.
B. Amanda has a nanny who lives in her home during the week while Amanda's parents are working.
C. Josh stays with his grandmother at her home when his mother is working.
D. Susanne's daughter stays with their neighbor Mindy and her children when Suzanne is working.
Q65/75: Which of the following is a complicating factor in studying the effects of family day care?
A. Most children who have family day care come from wealthy families.
B. Very few children have family day care.
C. Most children who have family day care are also enrolled in another type of day care.
D. There is too much individual variation between familial caregivers.
Q66/75: Which of the following is probably to blame when explaining discrepancies in research findings related to day care and its influence on cognitive development?
A. Studies involving day care fail to account for the size of the facility and number of children enrolled.
B. Studies that relate to impoverished children are more accurate if the studies are small.
C. Too many studies focus on the problems of middle class children but not impoverished children.
D. There is a discrepancy in the level of stimulation a child would receive at home versus day care.
Q67/75: Which of the following groups of children is most likely to experience some negative effects from non-familial day care?
A. White children from middle-class homes
B. Children from affluent homes
C. African-American children from middle-class homes
D. Children from lower socio-economic classes
Q68/75: All-in-all, what seems to be the most important factor in cognitive development in children?
A. Appropriate levels of stimulation
B. The temperament of the caregiver
C. The temperament of the child
D. Frequent interaction between caregiver and child
Q69/75: Which of the following statements about social development and day care is true?
A. Children in nonparental care show no substantive differences in attachment from children cared for exclusively by their parents.
B. Parental behaviors are more associated with social development if the day care arrangements are unstable.
C. Their is a heightened risk of insecure attachment in children placed in day care after the age of 1.
D. Children in nonparental care seem to have a higher rate of insecure attachment than children with exclusively maternal care.
Q70/75: According to your text, kindergartners who had spent as few as _____ hours per week in nonparental care showed more aggressive behavior than their peers.
A. 10
B. 25
C. 40
D. 30
Q71/75: What is the name of the stress hormone that has been linked to differences in behavior of children in day care versus children reared exclusively at home?
A. Testosterone
B. Estrogen
C. Cortisol
D. Thyroxine
Q72/75: With regard to children's play areas, which of the following characteristic of toys is more important than quantity?
A. Variety
B. Cognitive integrity
C. Complexity
D. Quality
Q73/75: What is the suggested group size for infants in day care?
A. 8-10 children
B. 4-6 children
C. 10-12 children
D. 6-8 children
Q74/75: For children younger than , the teacher/child ration should be no higher than _____.
A. 1:2
B. 1:4
C. 1:6
D. 1:3
Q75/75: Jaslin is a caregiver in a local day care. Parents often describe her as involved, positive, and responsive to the children. Jaslin would be defined as what type of caregiver?
A. Sympathetic
B. Knowledgeable
C. Sensitive
D. Well organized
Test and Author details
Test description: Psychology, human growth and development
Author: SantaNurse
End of test
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