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PSYCH 012 Human Growth and Development -Chapter 5 Practice Test
Q1/75: According to Piaget, ____________________ describe a babys simple repetitive actions that are organized around the babys own body.
A. primary circular reactions
B. tertiary circular reactions
C. principle circular reactions
D. secondary circular reactions
Q2/75: According to Piaget, _____________________ describe repetitive actions oriented around external objects.
A. tertiary circular reactions
B. principle circular reactions
C. primary circular reactions
D. secondary circular reactions
Q3/75: According to Piaget, ______________________ describe deliberate experimentation with variations of previous actions that occur in the sensorimotor period.
A. tertiary circular reactions
B. primary circular reactions
C. secondary circular reactions
D. principle circular reactions
Q4/75: What is Piaget's first stage of cognitive development?
A. Concrete operations
B. Sensory accommodations
C. Preoperations
D. Sensorimotor
Q5/75: Gregory is a six-month-old baby boy. He is learning about his environment through touching things, putting things in his mouth, and scooting around on the floor. According to Piaget, Greg is in which stage of cognitive development?
A. Preambulatory
B. Sensorimotor
C. Concrete operations
D. Preoperations
Q6/75: Chun Lee sticks anything in his mouth that he can get his hands on. He has also started looking in the general direction of sounds that he hears. Chun Lee is exhibiting which of the following?
A. Coordination of secondary schemes
B. Primary circular reactions
C. Secondary circular reactions
D. Tertiary circular reactions
Q7/75: Glynnis is months old. She is trying out new things, playing with her toys, and manipulating objects in new ways - experimenting with her environment. Glynnis is in which substage of Piaget's first cognitive stage?
A. Mental representation
B. Primary reflexes
C. Tertiary circular reactions
D. Primary circular reactions
Q8/75: Which of the following is the best description of tertiary circular reactions?
A. The child uses letters and pictures to represent their internal world.
B. These are the beginnings of accommodation. The child learns that objects have more than one use.
C. The child learns that when an object or person disappears, it continues to exist.
D. The child engages in purposeful "scientific" exploration, initially through trial-and-error processes.
Q9/75: Dominic is eight months old. He sees a toy that he wants to play with, but it is out of reach. He uses the toy in his hand to drag the out-of-reach toy closer. What is Dominic demonstrating?
A. Coordination of secondary schemes
B. Means-end behavior
C. Reflexive behavior
D. Mental representation
Q10/75: In which substage of Piaget's sensorimotor cognitive development will babies look for partially hidden objects?
A. First
B. Fourth
C. Third
D. Second
Q11/75: Piaget argued that imitating other people's facial gestures was a complex skill because it required what?
A. Deferred imitation
B. Mental representation
C. Combining cross-modal perceptions with cognitive awareness
D. Combining visual and kinesthetic cues
Q12/75: By what age does your text suggest that most infants develop the understanding that objects still exist even when they are out of the infant's sight?
A. 3 months
B. 4 months
C. 12 months
D. 9 months
Q13/75: In which substage did Piaget suggest that children can first imitate the facial expressions of others?
A. Three
B. Five
C. Four
D. Two
Q14/75: When a child looks for an object in the place where it was last seen and gives up if it is not there, what type of logic are they demonstrating?
A. The A-not-B error
B. The error of object permanence
C. Representational logic
D. Trial-and-error logic
Q15/75: According to your text, which of the following statements is correct concerning challenges to Piaget's theories?
A. Piaget's assessments of infants have been largely discarded by modern researchers.
B. Piaget underestimated the cognitive abilities of infants.
C. Piaget overestimated the cognitive abilities of infants.
D. Piaget failed to take ethnicity into account when he studied infants.
Q16/75: Vernon is a -month-old toddler. His family laughs when he waves bye-bye because he seems to be waving at himself. Piaget would attribute this twist on the bye-bye wave to which of the following ideas?
A. Caregiver involvement dictates the level of sensory development.
B. Children simply imitate what they see.
C. Children learn gestures through object permanence.
D. Deferred imitation is impossible until age two or later.
Q17/75: What did research carried out by Herbert, Gross & Hayne in demonstrate regarding deferred imitation?
A. That nine-month-olds can defer their imitation for as long as 24 hours.
B. That the longest that a child under 14 months of age can defer imitation is 3 - 4 hours.
C. That a 14 month old can defer imitation for up to a week.
D. That deferred imitation doesn't happen until at least 18 months of age.
Q18/75: A child's understanding of the nature of objects, their properties, and how they work defines which of the following?
A. Object permanence
B. Objectification
C. Object relations
D. Object concept
Q19/75: Which of the following terms is used to describe a strategy in which researchers move an object in a way that the infant does not expect?
A. Violation of object concept method
B. Violation of object permanence method
C. Violation-of-expectations method
D. Violation of experience method
Q20/75: Which of the following is a correct statement regarding the research of Renee Baillargeon?
A. Strategies for learning are learned.
B. Knowledge about learning is not innate.
C. Knowledge about objects is present at birth.
D. Strategies for learning are innate.
Q21/75: Your text refers to studies involving nursing mothers who were inadvertently smothering their infants a little by holding them improperly during feeding. The babies response was usually to resist nursing. This study was used to illustrate which of the following concepts at work in infant learning?
A. Limited reinforcement
B. Classical conditioning
C. Operant conditioning
D. Deferred imitation
Q22/75: What is the term that describes the organization of experiences into expectancies?
A. Operant conditioning
B. Schematic learning
C. Modeling
D. Classical conditioning
Q23/75: Permanent changes in behavior that result from experience are examples of
A. procession.
B. molding.
C. conservation.
D. learning.
Q24/75: When an infant cries, the caregiver responds by picking up the child, changing a diaper, or feeding. These actions by the caregiver serve as reinforcements, increasing the likelihood that the child will again communicate certain needs by crying. This demonstrates that even an infant learns through which type of conditioning?
A. Operant
B. Modeling
C. Observational
D. Classical
Q25/75: Kayla was given several different brightly colored balls to play with, one after the other. After about ball number seven, Kayla seemed to lose interest. When she was given a stuffed animal, she showed renewed interest. This renewed interest is due, in part, to which of the following?
A. Reinforcement
B. Superordinates
C. Categorizing
D. Schematograms
Q26/75: Repeated exposure to particular experiences results in the development of "known" combinations of activities, or expectancies. This describes which of the following?
A. Classical conditioning
B. Observational processing
C. Operant conditioning
D. Schematic learning
Q27/75: In terms of understanding, which of the following is not usually seen until around age five and is linked to language development?
A. Conceptual grouping
B. Complex categories
C. Conservation
D. Hierarchical categories
Q28/75: Rovee-Collier demonstrated that forgotten infant memories can be retrieved by using which of the following?
A. Modeling
B. Cues
C. Interpretation of schemes
D. Word association
Q29/75: If an infant is babbling and accidentally babbles something that sounds like a real word, the child's parents show interest and encouragement. That encouragement reinforces the child's "accidental word," leading to further attempts to form such words. This example demonstrates which of the following views of language development?
A. Nativist
B. Naturalist
C. Behaviorist
D. Interactionist
Q30/75: Which of the following theorists is credited with the development of the behaviorist perspective of language?
A. Abraham Maslow
B. B.F. Skinner
C. Sigmund Freud
D. Noam Chomsky
Q31/75: Tina babbles and her mother responds to her by imitating the sounds Tina makes. This would appear to refute the belief that
A. early language is an example of stimulus-response theory.
B. early language is the result of reinforcement of correct sounds.
C. language is based on fundamental operating principles.
D. language acquisition results from imitation.
Q32/75: In some languages, nouns and verbs are stressed sounds, and children who speak those languages seem to learn nouns and verbs first. In other languages, prefixes and suffixes are stressed, and children learn those sounds first. This idea that children are preprogrammed to focus on "stressed" sounds is a part of which view of language development?
A. Naturalist
B. Nativist
C. Behaviorist
D. Empiricist
Q33/75: Children learn rules of grammar before they learn the exceptions to them. In other words, the errors they make in language are associated with rules, not random patterns, as behaviorists suggested. This criticism represents the ideas of whom?
A. Sigmund Freud
B. Alfred Adler
C. Noam Chomsky
D. Melissa Bowerman
Q34/75: The abbreviation LAD refers to which of the following?
A. An acquired process of language development
B. A learned language processor
C. A language directional device
D. An innate language processor
Q35/75: What terminology would some theorists use to describe the innate language processor that children are born with?
A. Innate translator
B. Critical element
C. Lingual understanding processor
D. Language acquisition device
Q36/75: An interactionist would see which of the following as a shortcoming of the nativists' approach to language development?
A. They pay too little attention to social context.
B. They rely too much on the parent-child interaction.
C. The interactionists and the nativists use the same approach to language development.
D. They place too much emphasis on the environment.
Q37/75: Which perspective asserts that language development is only a part of the process of cognitive development?
A. Cognitive
B. Interactionist
C. Naturalist
D. Nativist
Q38/75: What is the basis of interactionist theory?
A. That infants have no inherent language abilities--all of their language skills must be learned.
B. That infants are born with innate restraints in regards to language development, and the infant brain has a set of general tools which help him to develop language.
C. That infants are born with biological preparedness in regards to language development, and the infant brain has a set of general tools which help him to develop language.
D. That infants are born with a set of general tools which help him to develop language and that these tools must be nurtured.
Q39/75: "When language starts to come in, it does not introduce new meanings to the child. Rather, it is used to express only those meanings the child has already formulated independently of language." This statement would most likely be made by whom?
A. A naturalist
B. An empiricist
C. An interactionist
D. A nativist
Q40/75: Among children whose language is significantly delayed, researchers have also noted that imitation and symbolic play are significantly delayed. This finding supports which view of language development?
B. Naturalist
C. Nativist
D. Interactionist
Q41/75: Children combine several gestures in their pretend play at around the same time that they first show two or three-word sentences in their speech. This supports which view of language development?
A. Interactionist
B. Nativist
C. Naturalist
Q42/75: Most of us speak in high pitched voices when speaking to a young child. Which of the following terms best describes this type of speaking?
C. Language encouragement
D. Infant directed speech
Q43/75: Reece said, "Go bye-bye?" His mother replied, "Yes, we are going to go bye-bye." Reece's mother's response is an example of which of the following?
C. Babyese
D. Infant speak
Q44/75: Which of the following is statements is correct?
A. Dialogic reading is part of Whithurst's strategy.
B. Bedtime stories are good for little more than helping the child fall to sleep.
C. Interactive language between adult and child is of minimal in fostering language development.
D. Infants remember a story just as well when it is read to them by a computer as when their mother reads it.
Q45/75: When a baby makes repetitive vowel sounds, such as the UUU sound, the baby is performing which of the following?
A. Cooing
B. Muttering
C. Babbling
D. Mumbling
Q46/75: Brody is entertaining himself and his mother with his repetitious "dadadada, babababa" as if he just likes the sound of his own voice. What is Brody doing?
A. Recasting
B. Muttering
C. Cooing
D. Babbling
Q47/75: Babbling with a rising intonation seems to signal
A. boredom.
B. the onset of language reception.
C. a desire for a response.
D. anger.
Q48/75: By the age of months, research suggests that babies have a receptive language store of about how many words?
A. 45-60
B. 40
C. 20-30
D. 100
Q49/75: A child's understanding of language is known by which of the following?
A. Language reception
B. Language bias
C. Language production
D. Language expression
Q50/75: Receptive is to expressive as
A. showing is to making.
B. hearing is to receiving.
C. making is to showing.
D. understanding is to producing.
Q51/75: Which of the following terms describes a child's ability to produce language accurately?
A. Repetition
B. Reception
C. Holophrasing
D. Expression
Q52/75: The average two year old has a vocabulary of about how many words?
A. 320
B. 175
C. 230
D. 250
Q53/75: Derek saw his mother's hat and exclaimed, "Mommy!" This is an example of which of the following?
A. Dual meaning
B. A holophrase
C. Compound meaning
D. Telegraphic speech
Q54/75: According to your text, vocabulary spurts occur around the time that the child has acquired about how many words?
A. 50
B. 25
C. 100
D. 30
Q55/75: Naming explosion typically occurs around what age?
A. 16 - 24 months
B. 11 - 14 months
C. 12 - 18 months
D. 8 - 10 months
Q56/75: Around what age do we typically see the emergence of holophrases?
A. 18 - 20 months
B. 6 months
C. Two years
D. 12 -18 months
Q57/75: What is the term used by linguists for grammatical markers?
A. Monophrases
B. Holophrases
C. Inflections
D. Reductions
Q58/75: "Mommy sick!" is an example of which type of language?
A. Telegraphic speech
B. Exclamatory meaning
C. A compound sentence
D. A hologram
Q59/75: Which of the following is a term that linguists use to describe the average sentence length?
A. Actual linguistic utterance
C. Mean length of utterance
D. Rate of sentence return
Q60/75: Rodney is focusing on the individual sounds, rhythm, and intonation of the language his family speaks. How old is Rodney?
A. 8 - 9 months
B. 18 months
C. 12 months
D. 20 weeks
Q61/75: Which of the following statements is true regarding children who talk late?
A. Less than half the children who talk late ever catch up with the mainstream.
B. Late talkers are usually suffering from organic deficits.
C. The children who do not catch up with their peers usually have receptive language deficits.
D. Among late talkers, delays in language development are unrelated to matters of general cognitive development.
Q62/75: Morgan does not seem to understand what is said to her or around her nearly as well as her playmates. Based on your reading, what else might we assume about Morgan's development?
A. Morgan has poorly developed fine motor skills.
B. Morgan is probably a late talker.
C. Morgan had poorly developed gross motor skills.
D. Morgan will probably not be particularly creative.
Q63/75: Eric caught on to his relation to other people very early in life. Rather than talk about "doggie" and "ball", Eric focused on people, using pronouns, like "you" and "me". Katherine Nelson would refer to this as which type of style?
A. A referential style
B. An expressive style
C. A receptive style
D. An ambiguous style
Q64/75: Charelle is fascinated with toys and other objects. She likes to play by herself with things and has a pretty impressive vocabulary that revolves around the names of objects. She also seems better at understanding what adults are talking about than her playmates are. Researcher Katherine Nelson would refer to this as which of the following?
A. An ambiguous style
B. An expressive style
C. A receptive style
D. A referential style
Q65/75: Which style is associated with strings of words that involve common interactions with adults?
A. Suggestive
B. Referential
C. Expressive
D. Receptive
Q66/75: Which of the following statements is true with regard to bilingual children?
A. Compared to monolingual children, bilingual children show no differences in acquiring reading skills.
B. Bilingualism is associated with deficits in metalinguistic ability.
C. For adults, the advantages of being bilingual outweigh any problems experienced in childhood.
D. Bilingual children who are fluent in both languages have only moderate learning difficulties in school.
Q67/75: With regard to language development, which statement is correct?
A. Babies in Asian cultures babble before they coo.
B. Holophrases appear after telegraphic speech.
C. Babies cannot understand language before they can speak it.
D. Telegraphic speech begins around 18 months.
Q68/75: Which of the following statements is true when comparing language development in different cultures?
A. The use of holophrases seem to precede the use of telegraphic speech in every language.
B. In some cultures, babies' first words do not appear until much later in other cultures.
C. In some cultures, use of holophrases begins at about the age of 18 months.
D. Babies in some cultures do not coo before they babble, as they do in most other cultures.
Q69/75: If I am speaking to you in Japanese and you are not paying attention, what word might I use to get your attention?
A. Te
B. Ne
C. Yo
D. Ye
Q70/75: What is the most widely used test that attempts to measure the intelligence of infants?
C. Stanford-Binet IQ test
D. Bayley Scales
Q71/75: Infant intelligence tests primarily gauge intelligence by measuring
A. cognitive and language skills.
B. expressive and receptive language skills.
C. sensory and language skills.
D. sensory and motor skills.
Q72/75: According to your text, some researchers suspect that, among infants, which of the following might be a good predictor of later intelligence test scores?
A. Rates of habituation
B. Levels of accommodation
C. Types of object permanence
D. Referential language
Q73/75: Which of the following best defines intelligence?
A. The ability to use information and solve problems across a variety of cultures.
B. The ability to rapidly solve problems.
C. The ability to function well within one's family.
D. The ability to take in and use information to function within a particular environment.
Q74/75: Which of the following is included in the Bayley III scales of infant intelligence which was not included in earlier versions?
A. Items that assess sensorimotor intelligence
B. Items that assess motor skills
C. Items that assess cognitive and language development
D. Items that assess sensory skills
Q75/75: The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence measures which of the following?
A. Cognitive and language development
B. Habituation rates
C. Motor skills
D. Sensory and motor skills
Test and Author details
Test description: Psychology, human growth and development
Author: SantaNurse
End of test
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